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Neuroscience and Branches of Neuroscience

Branches-of-neuroscience
Neural wiring in the nevous system
Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system and brain. That said, we shall also explore the branches of neuroscience in this article.
Major branches of neuroscience are very much interrelated because neuroscience itself is a science for the curious about multiple structures and functions of nervous system, human brain, human psychology and relationship among these variables to our environment including lower animals, in which case, this is somewhat another science called comparative psychology [maybe coparative neuroscience too, as the term seem appropriate and acceptable, but the semantic of it is that neuroscience relates].

What really is neuroscience?
Neuroscience is a scientific discipline that focuses on the study of humain nervous systems [sometimes using animal models] in order to understand human behaviour, and pathologies of man.

Goals of neuroscience
The goal of neuroscience are similar to the goals of psychology. Why and how? This is because neuroscience and psychology both seek to understand human behaviour and mental processes. This makes it easy to to want to align with the cognitive (mental) perspective of neuroscience, in terms of its definition. Neuroscience has many branches interwoven together and these would be described further.

25 Branches of Neuroscience
Below is a list of 25 popular branches of neuroscience that you want to know, whether you are thinking about enroling into a graduate school or PhD. in Neuroscience. Find your interest in this list.

1. Cognitive neuroscience
2. Computational neuroscience
3. Translational neuroscience
4. Neurophysiology
5. Neuropharmacology
6. Neuroanatomy
7. Behavioural neuroscience
8. Developmental neuroscience
9. Systems neuroscience
10. Molecular neuroscience
11. Neuropilosophy
12. Neurology
13. Neuropsychology
14. Neurotechnology
15. Neurochemistry
16. Biomedical neuroscience
17. Motor systems neuroscience
18. Neuroimaging
19. Observational neuroscience
20. Affective neuroscience
21. Sensory neuroscience
22. Neuroethics
23. Theoretical neuroscience
24. Neurolinguustics
25. Neuroeconomics.

1. Cognitive neuroscience
As it implies 'cognitive' neuroscience is the branch of neuroscience that studies the variables of the mind (brain). These mind variables are memory, brainology, learning, Intelligence Quotient etc. A good number of neuroscientists in this branch have their academic background in psychology.

2. Computational neuroscience
Computational neuroscience is the unification of the nervous system and digital computer in order to use computer to understand the nervous system. This branch relates to physics, mathematics, computer science, electrical engineering and mathematical psychology.

3. Translational neuroscience
Translational neuroscience goal is to understand the origin of neuropathology or nervous system disorders.

4. Neurophysiology
Neurophysiology is the integration of multiple advanced techniques and technologies in understanding the functions of nervous system. These technologies usually involves brain stimulation, mapping of cerebral cortex, electroencephalography, and electrophysiology.

5. Neuropharmacology
Neuropharmacology is the branch of neuroscience that seeks to understand the interaction between chemical substances and nervous system. The branch is closely related to psychopharmacology because they share similar goals. However, the point of emphasis in psychology is psychoactive drug(s) affecting behaviour.

6. Neuroanatomy
Neuroanatomy is the study of nervius system structures, where a particular cell, tissue or organ is located.

7. Behavioural neuroscience
Behavioural neuroscience is a scientific theusarus replacement of biological psychology. In other words, behavioural neuroscience is also known as biopsychology. The area of concentration of this branch is the application of biological theories to the explanstion of mental processes and human behaviour. Also where neccessary, use animal models to draw inferences about human behaviour (comparative psychology). Why? It is theoretical founded on the idea that man and animal share similar attributes.

8. Developmental neuroscience
Development neuroscience is the study of cellular and embryological basis of nervous system development.

9. Systems neuroscience
Interconnectedness of neural network is the focal point here. This is the umbrella term but with meaningful practicalities to strengthen the underlying principle of neuroplasticity by Donald Hebb (1949) stating that,

The neuron that fire together, wire together. Neurons that fire apart, wire apart


10. Molecular neuroscience
Molecular neuroscience means the study of nervous system from the perspective of "all anything molecule" about neurons. This is related to molecular genetics, molecular biology and protein fabrication.

11. Neurophilosophy
Neurophilosophy is also called the philosophy of neuroscience. It is the integration of neuroscience with philosophy, mind, practical and logical wisdom

12. Neurology
Neurology is a branch of neuroscience and of course, Medicine with a focus on studying disorders of nervous system, diagnosis, prognosis and amelioration of neural diseases.

13. Neuropsychology
This branch can be explained simply in a word, "neuro-behaviour". This is the one to one or conglomerate relationship between some neural assemblies and a particular behavours. For example, what neurons are most notable for hunger signal in the brain? Hypothalamic neurons.

14. Neurotechnology
Neurotechnology combines artificial intelligence with maching learning and robotics as its focal point. Why and how? Gadgets can rewire the brain . We are in a world where everything evolves with technology. Techs and neural wiring can be explored in lab and carried to real world or vice versa. This is a subtle science. You may never know how Facebook affects your brain cells. Recently too, Elon Musk and colleagues developed a technology called Neural lace launched from an AI company, Neuralink. This tech can be integrated with human brain in order to boost cognitive function. By this, amnesia may become something of the past, brain processing may accelerate 10X faster, we may soon become humanity 2.0.

15. Neurochemistry
Neurochemistry is the study of chemical components of the nervous systems are neurotrasmitters, lipids, blood cells, Cerebro-Spinal-Fluids (CSFs).

16. Biomedical neuroscience
This is found under the tradition of medicine. Are other branches of neuroscience not found under medical tradition? Yes, No. It all depends on the branch itself. For example, cognitive neuroscience is more inclined to medicine than cognitive psychology. Yet, both share similar goals.
More specific, biomedical neuroscience is focused on anatomy and physiology of the nervous system.

17. Motor system neuroscience
This is essential to the study of motor systems (movement of body structure). Basically, it studies locomotion [of muscles].

18. Neuroimaging
Neuroimaging is the use of advanced technologies to examine the brain and neural system. For example, Positron Emission Tomography scans (PETs), Computerised Tomography scans (CTs), Electroencephalography (EEG) etc.

19. Observational neuroscience
Observational neuroscience employs observational research methods in learning neural structures and functions.

20. Affective neuroscience
Affective neuroscience is the study of neuroscience with emphasis on mood changes like depression, elation and their neural correlates.

21. Sensory neuroscience
Understanding the sensory system by first understanding the localization of perception in the brain.

22. Neuroethics
Neuroethics is the branch of neuroscience that is based on research ethics. It involves neurocriticism and neuroskeptical findings.

23. Theoretical neuroscience
This is the branch of neuroscience that explores theories and hypotheses in neuroscience. Funny enough, there is no branch of neuroscience that doesn't theorize.

24. Neurolinguistics
Neurolinguistics is the branch of psychology that helps to understand the neural correlates of language intelligence. Some example of brain areas notable for this task are Broca's area, Wernicke's area, and Frontal lobe.

25. Neuroeconomics
Neuroeconomics is the scientific study of economic decision making, taking its root from economics, psychology and neuroscience.

What more? Your turn...
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