How to write an excellent research proposal
A proposal is a futuristic draft of an actual research project. That is, any research proposal is said to be a prospective aspect of a research project. In fact, it is the framework.
This article will show you the idea behind a research proposal that no supervisor will reject and also the step-by-step method of how to write it.
|Think research proposal|
The idea that you need to put into consideration about research proposal is that any research proposal should be written in future tense or word such as ”will” in the statement ”There will be a significant effect of X on Y in any of such hypotheses.
Prospect is synonymous with future as much as future and prospect are both synonymous to propose.
In this regard, proposal is used to mean something set for the future in advance.
The following are the steps to consider if you want to write a research proposal:
- Title or topic of the research should be something like ‘A research proposal on the effect of X on Y’.
- Be sure to start the introduction by first writing something about the dependent variable. For example, if you want to measure the effect of X on Y, begin with something like ”it has been observed that Y(dependent variable) is something that has become rampant in the society since the past centuries. abject poverty…this is implied upon the fact that X(independent variable) is the factor which is the sole determinant or cause of Y”. Note that in the above that X is explained lastly but the introductory paragraph is opened with the Y(dependent variable). Let the introduction be explanatory but do not beat around the bush, do not mention the methodology nether to mention the theoretical framework and literature review. Do not mention any other thing, just go straight to the point of introduction. That’s it.
Statement of problem:
- These problems are stated in form of questions. You can make it about 3 to 5 or more questions depending on our wide you want to cover in your topic. For example;
- Will there be any significant influence of X on Y?
- If there will be, what other factors can be implicated?
- Does X variable or Y variable has to do with gender?…etc……….
Aims and objectives of the study:
- You just have to state them. This can range from 5 to 9 points depending on your scope. For example;
- To determine the effect of X on Y
- To test the theory of Z
Scope of the study:
- this is the area of coverage of the study. That is, what will you do and what will you not do in the research. If you wanna survey the attitude of X on Y then, it will be only the attitude and nothing more, no other variable.. just what it has to cover and that’s all. You do not have to digress or go astray from the topic of your choice.
Relevance of the study:
- explain how the study will contribute to the body of research, individual, and the society at large.
- briefly state and explain the theories relevant to be used in the study.
- What is the previous research conducted about what you want to research on? Review them and cite them in your work. for both theoretical framework and literature review, make sure to cite the scholars so that you won’t be accused of plagiarism by any authority. Citation here is something like ” According to Thorndike (1948), men often feel more emotion as much as women do.
- You can state about 3 to 7 hypotheses that are testable. Let them all be alternate (recommended). Here are some examples:
- There will be a significant relationship between X and Y.
- There will be a significant difference between X and Y.
- There will be a significant effect of X and Y on Z.
Operational definition of terms:
- define to the barest minimum and the most explanatory condition of the selected terms. For example, if ‘Hunger’ is a term in your research, and it means that rats were deprived of food for ”two days”, your operational definition of hunger will be ”the deprivation of rats, of food for two days.” *Do not say hunger is the deprivation of food. Also, you may have as many terms as possible but let them be short and very easy to understand.
- –Research design to be used e.g survey.
- -Population e.g Lachester hospital
- -Sampling method e.g random sampling.
- Sample size e.g 120 hospital patients.
- Instruments: state them, their psychometric properties (validity and reliability) and their developers.
- You may include the scoring procedures for each instrument (recommended).
- Statistical methods used for testing the stated hypotheses
- Reference all your citations